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Europe Report: State of the Software Developer Nation

In this report

European Tech Trends

Europe’s tech industry is feeling the pinch of the market downturn and a cooling global economy.



It’s been an extremely challenging year for Europe’s tech industry: An ongoing war in Ukraine was followed by an energy crisis, rising inflation and interest rates. In the tech market, we’ve seen sudden difficulties in fund-raising after record growth during the pandemic and mass layoffs in the US that also reached Europe.

It’s a time of having to do more with less. Software developers are entering a different job market in 2023 than they’ve become accustomed to during 2021’s tech boom.

Amid so much uncertainty, it’s more important than ever to see the signal in the noise. I hope that our data reports will help do their part to support you as you navigate these uncertain times.

Despite the challenges, there does seem to be reason to be cautiously optimistic:

That means tech companies with solid business models still continue to grow and have a strong pool of talent to hire from. It also means skilled developers still have exciting opportunities to explore.

I hope that this report will help to fuel meaningful conversations in the European developer community and give companies the data they need to support their tech teams in building thriving careers.

Philip Joubert
OfferZen Co-founder and CEO
Philip Joubert
OfferZen Co-founder and CEO

Software engineer skills

JavaScript dominates as Europe's most-used language, while TypeScript is the most-wanted.

Software engineer skills

AWS is redefining the art of the cloud war

AWS is Europe's most-used cloud platform

Developers' most-used cloud platforms

Amazon, Microsoft, and Google are the three top competitors in the cloud wars, but AWS is the clear leader across the continent.

With Amazon establishing an unassailable lead, the battle is heating up for second place. Azure may hold second place overall, but Google Cloud Platform takes second among German developers.

Company size also matters: While Microsoft’s Azure Platform is the most used platform among Europe’s enterprise companies, Google Cloud Platform is the most used platform by European startups with fewer than 10 employees.

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Europe’s latest official language? JavaScript

Most wanted programming languages

  1. TypeScript
  2. Python
  3. Go

Most used programming languages

  1. JavaScript
  2. TypeScript
  3. Java
Developers’ most-used language by role

JavaScript is the most widely used programming language in Europe. It’s used by more than half of software developers on the continent!

Unsurprisingly, this is followed by its superset TypeScript in second place. The duopoly’s dominance extends to frontend and full stack developers.

On the backend, however, Java is the most used language in Europe, including two of its largest powerhouses, the Netherlands and Germany.

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Want more detailed salary information?

Check out our articles on developer salaries in the Netherlands.

Full Stack

TypeScript is Europe's most-wanted language, but German and Dutch developers are keen on Python

Developers’ most wanted language by role

Given JavaScript’s dominance in the European tech landscape, it should come as little surprise to learn that TypeScript is the continent’s most-wanted language.

Microsoft's first fully open-source project has given JavaScript developers superpowers and ensures the language will remain relevant for years to come.

Despite TypeScript’s continental popularity, Python remains the most wanted language for developers based in Germany and the Netherlands. Google-developed Go comfortably beats Python as backend developers' most wanted language in 2023, with another developer favourite, Rust, in third place.

Backend developers aren’t the only ones keen on Rust: 1 in 10 frontend developers indicate a desire to become Rustaceans in the near future.

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Want more detailed salary information?

Check out our articles on developer salaries in Germany.

React is the most-used framework in Europe

Developers’ most-used framework by role

JavaScript’s popularity is further reflected in the rankings of the continent’s most-used frameworks: Four of the top five spots are held by JavaScript frameworks.

At the top of the pile is React, which is used by over a third of European developers and 37.7% of German and 28.4% of Netherlands-based developers.

Node.js follows in second place with Java framework Spring Boot taking third.

Among frontend developers, Next.js narrowly beats Node.js to second place.

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React and Next.js are battling it out for the title of most-wanted framework

Software engineers' most-wanted frameworks

React may be the most-used framework, but it faces stiff competition from Vercel-created Next.js for the title of most-wanted framework. In fact, less than 0.2% separates React from Next.js.

The rest of the top five point to the longevity of the JavaScript ecosystem with Node.js and Angular taking third and fourth, respectively. Google-backed Flutter completes the top five.

Despite ​​full stack developers still being keen on vanilla React, Europe’s frontend developers show a clear preference for powering their React projects with Next.js.

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“Over time React has become so omnipresent that it’s now the standard we compare new technologies to. What I think really sets React apart though is its community. In the five years I’ve been organising Berlin’s React meetup, I’ve seen a shared enthusiasm that makes our community more than just a group of tech enthusiasts. Everyone, from newcomers to regulars, is excited to learn about the newest development in the field and also share their experiences. All of this creates a diverse mix of perspectives and brings people and resources to learn from and battle-test ideas with.”

Robin Pokorný, React Berlin Meetup Organiser

33% of developers are looking for work in the next year. Are you?

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tech stack, and salary information.

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OfferZen conducted a survey to find out more about skills, work experience and job search behaviour of developers. A total of 1025 people took the online survey between 23 February and 26 May 2023. Of these responses, 596 were counted as valid because they were from developers, or developers who manage other developers, and are currently living in Europe.

We hosted the survey itself on Typeform and recruited respondents via emails sent to more than 40 000 software makers in the OfferZen community and social media posts to the public. Data was anonymised in accordance with GDPR guidelines and is housed separate to any and all of OfferZen’s platform data. Percentages may not always add to 100% due to rounding.

Salary data used in this report was provided by TalentUp. It is collected from 100+ global job domains and consolidated into a single dataset. Duplicate data points have been removed and validated across data sources.


The data in this report does not claim to be representative of the entire developer population in Europe. Any time the term, 'software engineer, ‘developer’ or 'software developer' is used, it refers to the group of developers who took our #DevNationSurvey between 23 February and 26 May 2023.

In cases where no data slicing occurs, all 596 valid responses were included. In order to shed light on survey participant characteristics, we’ve included the demographic breakdown of all 596 valid responses below.






Coding experience



Organisation size

About OfferZen

OfferZen is a developer job marketplace by developers for developers. Our platform matches job-seeking developers with exciting opportunities at companies, but this effort actually encompasses a much wider mission: To help developers and their teams thrive in the tech ecosystem.

Over the last six years, this has manifested in a multitude of ways from our core business of helping developers find awesome new jobs, to hosting local maker evenings and tech events, or helping developers share their experiences on our blog. We want to help build an inclusive, transparent, and thriving tech ecosystem.

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